Clinical Symptoms of Anemia
Anemia is a condition in which the red blood cell count is lower than normal. It can be the result of reduced hemoglobin in the red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. As a result, the body doesn’t get the oxygen-rich blood it needs, leaving those with anemia feeling lethargic and chronically tired. Hemoglobin is a protein-rich iron substance that is a prescribed remedy for those suffering from anemia. Clinically, there are cues that can trigger an anemia diagnosis.
Hemolytic anemia involves the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells. This condition is often inherited but can be acquired. This condition can lead to the patient becoming jaundiced because the hemoglobin byproduct bilirubin is not being filtered through the liver. The condition can lead to dark brown urine, and yellow skin and eye coloring. This can be a life-threatening condition if not treated properly.
Angular cheilitis are lesions found at the corner of the mouth. They are the result of inflammation that leads to cracks, splits and possibly shallow ulcers on the outside of the mouth. This clinical symptom is a result of iron deficiency anemia and manifests stronger symptoms as a result of a fungal infection in the lesion.
Glossitis can result from one of three deficiencies: iron deficiency anemia, folate deficiency anemia and vitamin B-12 deficiency. It causes a swelling of the tongue. In extreme cases, glossitis can cause a blockage of the airway and require emergency medical care.
The enlargement of the spleen is called splenomegaly and can lead to severe abdominal pain or a rupturing of the spleen. Splenomegaly is suggestive of chronic hemolytic anemia, leukemia, lymphoma or portal hypertension. Often hemolytic anemia becomes a co-condition with one of the other aforementioned conditions.
Frontal bossing is the exaggerated protruding of the forehead. It is a symptom often found in infants with sickle cell anemia, which is an inherited form of anemia that gives red blood cells an abnormal shape, making it difficult to transport hemoglobin effectively. Sickle cells die within 20 days compared to normal red blood cells that have a lifespan of 120 days and the body cannot replace them fast enough, which can lead to sickle cell crises requiring immediate medical attention.